This artist's conception from NASA compares what a planetary system orbiting a brown dwarf might look like in comparison to our own solar system. Since a brown dwarf star is smaller than our Sun, the planets would orbit much closer to the star.
The image also shows the main layout of our solar system, with small terrestrial planets close to the Sun and gas giants farther out, in more widely-spaced orbits. The distances are not to scale.
The above image compares the relative sizes of the planets. Note the stark contrast of the gas giant planets, compared to the much smaller terrestrial planets.
This image shows the relative size of the Sun, compared to the planets. The sun contains some 99% of the mass of the solar system, even counting the asteroids and comets as well as the planets. Jupiter is the second largest body in our solar system, and it is tiny compared to the Sun.
This video gives a nice comparison of the sizes of the planets, and continues on to show how the Sun compares in size to some other stars.
Terrestrial planets are small, rocky planets. In our solar system, the terrestrial planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Gas giant planets are often called "Jovian" planets, after the largest gas giant planet in our solar system, Jupiter. The Jovian planets in our solar system are Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn and Neptune. Pluto was considered a planet until Aug. 4, 2006 when it was reclassified as a "dwarf planet."
close to the sun
closely spaced orbits
low escape speed
weak magnetic field
far from the sun
widely spaced orbits
high escape speed
strong magnetic field
The planets lie close to the ecliptic, or the plane of Earth's orbit about the Sun. The planes of the other planets' orbits do not lie exactly in the same plane, but are within a few degrees, so the planets do not typically line up exactly.
Since Mercury and Venus are closer to the Sun than Earth is, they are always close to the horizon. Planets that are located farther away from the Sun than Earth can be found higher in the sky.
Once in awhile, the planets appear close together in the sky. In the above photo, five planets appear relatively close to each other. Of course, Saturn is really much farther away than Mars but here they lie in the same direction. An alignment of all eight planets and Pluto is very rare, happening only onec in about 500 years.